In majority of cases, there is no evident symptoms or sign of cancer growth in the body. Signs and symptoms of cancer appear in the form of cell mass, lump, or ulcer. Symptoms and signs of cancerous growth in the body depend on the type and origin of cancer. There are additional symptoms too that may or may not be related to cancer such as unusual weight loss, fever, weakness, fatigue, sore throat, persistent cough, nausea, unusual bleeding or discharge, loss of appetite and others. Generally imaging study of the affected area is performed with the help of X-rays, CT, MRI, Ultrasound. Endoscopy and some blood tests are also performed to detect the abnormalities.
It can be defined as the study of identification of carcinogenic factors and cause of cancer. There are many cancer-causing factors such as irregular lifestyle, obesity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption. Other factors known to affect cancer risks are exposure to the radiations and chemicals. Some hormones too, can cause the development of cancer by promoting abnormal cell proliferation such as insulin like growth factors and their binding proteins.
Cancer bioinformatics is involved with the application of bioinformatics techniques and computational tools to identify the biochemical metabolism, molecular mechanism of oncogene and proto-oncogene’s regulation and signalling pathway of cancer. This study area is also correlated with the identification and validation of novel network biomarkers and personalized medicines in prevention and treatment of cancer.
Cancer biomarkers denote to a molecule or substance secreted by the body in response to presence of tumour cells in the body. Biomarkers are used to identify early stage cancer, or to make a diagnosis on the disease condition of patient. It can also be used to define the predictive treatment or observe the treatment process given to the patients.
Cancer treatments and therapies vary based on type of cancer a person is suffering from. The major treatments are surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy, laser therapy, palliative care, stem cell transplant and precision medicine. There are also some vaccines to treat a certain type of cancer such as Human papillomavirus vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine.
Cancer is the one of the deadliest diseases in the world today. There are various types of treatments available to prevent or treat cancer. It is also called group of diseases. In major cases, survival rates are very low.
Current innovations in cancer research are:
Uninterrupted Anticancer drug discovery and development is critical to find a complete cure for cancer. Due to the drug resistance developed by tumour cells for existing treatments, this is becoming a mandatory approach to fight the disease.
Cancer pharmacology involves the study of basic mechanisms of signal transduction associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis, mechanism of actions of new anti-tumour agents and discovery of new drugs, Basic mechanism of DNA damage and DNA repairs and development of novel strategies for gene therapy. It also includes investigation on the role of growth factors in the progression of tumours and identification of new signal transduction pathway and new receptors. Other areas of cancer pharmacology research include aberrations in the mechanisms of programmed cell deaths associated with tumoral growth, genes associated with tumoral growth, interleukin therapy, free radical generation and chemotherapeutic resistance.
It is the branch of medicine deals with process of regrowth, repair or replace the diseased cells It also includes generation and use of therapeutic stem cells, tissue engineering and production of artificial organs or tissues. Example of regenerative medicine include the use of extracellular matrix materials in treatments of chronic wounds and orthopaedic surgeries, and transplantation of in vitro grown cells, tissues and organs.
Cancer is a disease that occurs because of abnormal cell division in the body. Abnormal cell proliferation occurs due to the lack of signal regulators in cell division. In other words, cancer cells do not have the genetic makeup to command them to stop controlling and die. Various chemical, cellular, and environmental factors cause plant growth in the body. Exposure to certain substances has been linked to the development of cancers such as smoking, alcohol abuse, abnormal lifestyle, obesity, radiation exposure and oncoviruses infection. Some cancers are also caused by genetic defects. Some hormones play a key role in promoting cell proliferation. Also, few independent diseases are linked to cancer. Factors that cause cancer can be controlled and therefore, cancer is usually protected. More than 30% of cancer deaths can be prevented by preventing harmful substances such as tobacco, excess weight or obesity, poor diet and physical activity, unprotected sexual intercourse, and air pollution. Not all-natural causes are preventable, such as radiation exposure and genetic cancer.
Medical oncologists diagnose, treat cancer patients, and conduct effective clinical research. They aim to provide the best results for cancer patients, whether that is a cure, or the comfort and enhancement of quality of life. They provide counselling for patients and their families.
Cancer screening, discussing treatment options with patients, planning and supervising drug treatment modalities, supporting patients and supervising their care, including their post-treatment lives are part of their roles.
Medical oncologists treat patients with cancer that can be treated surgically but that is another treatment that improves their vision.
Medical oncologists treat conditions such as colorectal cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, urological cancer, leukaemia, and melanoma. Common procedures include chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and biological treatments such as antibodies, small molecules, and immunotherapy.
Clinical oncologists are doctors who treat patients with a balance of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Participate in the treatment of all types of cancer and use a range of other cancer treatments, besides surgery. They are different from oncologists, who use non-radiation drugs. Clinical oncologists decide which treatment to use based on a variety of factors, such as the type of tumor, the location of the tumor, the stage of the disease, and the general health of the patient. They assess the suitability of a different treatment before delivering it to the patient. It is a clinical oncologist where the patient can ask important questions about his or her condition and treatment.
Robotic oncology is an advanced form of cancer treatment in which oncologist perform a robot-assisted minimally invasive or laparoscopic surgery to treat cancer such as prostate, liver, stomach, colon as well as some gynaecological cancers.
Paediatric oncology is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children. The most common cancer in children are leukaemia, or blood cancer and lymphoma. Children with cancer are affected with cognitive and learning problems. The type of cancer that develops in children are often different from cancers that develop in adults.
Neuro-oncology is the investigation of mind and spinal line neoplasms, a significant number of which are exceptionally hazardous and perilous (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiform, ependymal, glioma, and cerebrum stem tumour are among the numerous cases of these). Among the harmful mind diseases, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiform and high-review astrocytoma are among the most noticeable ones.
Oncology nursing is the meeting the various needs of cancer patients during the diagnosis screening, and treatment of cancer. Well trained oncology nurses are employed for this work. Palliative care is the treatment provided to cancer patients to feel better and it can be a combination of variety of methods. The goal of palliative care is reducing the symptoms of cancer and improving the quality of life.
Research helps to identify the causes and develop strategies for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and treatment of cancer. Research institutes, institutions, companies, and hospitals, all contribute to the progression of cancer step by step.
From cellular bioscience to clinical trials, cancer research helps to diagnose and compare different cancer treatment programs. Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and integrated therapies such as chemo-radiotherapy are these applications. It was in the mid-1990s that it showed the introduction of clinical cancer research into treatments taken from biotechnology research, such as cancer immunotherapy and gene therapy. Cancer advocates work at the local or national level, providing support to those living with cancer, raising awareness about the disease, advancing cancer research, improving the quality of cancer care, addressing legal and regulatory issues affecting cancer research.
Drug development is the process of finding or searching for a new drug according to biological purposes. A small molecular drug affects biomolecules by activating or inhibiting activity, providing a beneficial effect on humans. The structure of the drug must be consistent with its target and charge so that they can interact and bind with the receptor. It can be computerized entirely or assisted by drug formulation. This is helpful in searching for or finding a cure based on computerized methods, which can be selected with improved integration, stability, and selection.
The long process that begins on the research board ends with clinical trials. It is a research study involving volunteers. After many years of research working to understand its effects on cancer cells in the laboratory and in animals, a new drug for people undergoing clinical trials is being used. Clinical trials help doctors find better treatments and ways to prevent cancer and other diseases. They also help answer other questions, such as how to prevent infections or treat symptoms and side effects.
Cancer drugs have been classified into several classes which include natural products, alkylating agents, hormones, antimetabolites. Vaccine is administered to healthy people for prevention from certain bacteria or viruses which spread certain diseases. These vaccines protect from the bacteria causing disease, as an individual needs to be vaccinated before getting infected by the same virus or bacteria so that it is recognized by the immune system easily due to the presence of the specific antigens and thus can be killed or destroyed.
Cancer is suspected in a view of a person’s symptoms and screening tests. Diagnostic tests affirm that Cancer is present which is followed by staging. Staging is a way of analysing the tumour, size, location, and the required treatment depending on the Cancer stage. It helps to determine the Prognosis of the patient i.e., treatment predictions, disease outcomes and patient’s recovery chances.
Cancer nanotechnology primarily directs on the application of nanoparticles for cancer imaging and drug delivery and nanotechnology approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Targeting and delivering of the anticancer drugs to tumour tissues to reduce the systemic toxicities improved the use of cancer nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has been used to cure other diseases such as HIV, cardiovascular diseases and several other chronic diseases.